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30-Nov-2019 19:47

In the 1870s, white workers' frustration with economic distress, labor market uncertainty, and capitalist exploitation turned into anti-Chinese sentiment and racist attacks against the Chinese called them the "yellow peril." In 1882, the U. Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, and later extended to exclude all Asian immigrants until World War II.The number of new immigrants arriving in the United States from China dwindled from 123,000 in the 1870s to 14,800 in the 1890s, and then to a historically low number of 5,000 in the 1930s.As a result, low-skilled workers starting at the bottom may well be trapped there with little chance of upward mobility even when they work hard.The second mode is incorporation into professional occupations in the mainstream economy through educational achievement.Chinatowns in the Northeast, particularly New York, and the mid-West grew to absorb those fleeing the extreme persecution in California.The gender imbalance for Chinese was nearly 27 males per single female in 1890.Chinese Americans are the oldest and largest ethnic group of Asian ancestry in the United States.They have endured a long history of migration and settlement that dates back to the late 1840s, including some 60 years of legal exclusion.

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They have also come from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds.

That dropped steadily over time, but males still outnumbered females by more than 2:1 by the 1940s.

In much of the pre-World War II era, the Chinese American community was essentially an isolated bachelors' society consisting of a small merchant class and a vast working class of sojourners (temporary immigrants who intended to return home after making money working in the U. After the 1950s, when hundreds of refugees and their families fled Communist China and arrived in the U. and particularly since the enactment of the 1965 Hart-Cellar Act, the ethnic community has experienced unprecedented demographic and social transformation from a bachelors' society to a family community.

Others, who could not afford or were too ashamed to return home, gravitated toward San Francisco's Chinatown for self-protection.

Still others traveled eastward to look for alternative means of livelihood.Instead, many new immigrants, especially the affluent and highly skilled, are bypassing inner cities to settle into suburbs immediately after arrival.